EDUCATION IN MYANMAR 1. Basic education is divided into four distinct levels, comprising a total of 11 years at the lower primary, upper primary, lower secondary and upper secondary levels. For example, class sizes in Myanmar (in both schools and Education Colleges) are large and whole-class teaching is common. However, the Department of Basic Education seems committed to easing the strain. This trend still holds today; however, the rate of departures may well slow, as students previously seeking international qualifications can now obtain them in Myanmar. This is a significant step up from the days of the military regime, when education only received 1.3% of total expenditure on average over a 50-year period. Creative Education, 9, 1277-1286. doi: 10.4236/ce.2018.99095. Find our research on the Bloomberg Terminal, Dow Jones Factiva, Eikon, S&P Capital IQ, LexisNexis and more. Due to the student protests in the 8888 uprising, the Myanmar government closed down all universities for two years. This lasted until 2012, when the government of president U Thein Sein allowed them to reopen in his bid to increase schooling options. However, it is thought that many of those enrolled do not complete the course, with a vast number leaving school around the age of nine to work in the informal sector. It is usually applied at a standard rate of 5% on a range of goods and services produced or rendered in Myanmar, as well as on imported goods. Various sector studies and collaborative efforts have been made in the last 25 years to identify key issues and implementation programmes. Children of rich and well-known families are often given easier access to the more prestigious secondary schools. While the education sector was largely dismantled by the military, leading to student uprisings in 1988, there is a growing sense of enthusiasm for the sector, fuelled by the overwhelming victory of the National League for Democracy (NLD) in the November 2015 election. On top of those constraints, much of the school infrastructure is inadequate, there is a shortage of teachers and classrooms are overcrowded. Watch Queue Queue But in both primary and secondary schools, the system is almost "no-failure education system". Initiatives to increase access to Myanmar health services, Proposed reforms for Myanmar's education sector, Myanmar's health care sector set to receive more funding, Dr Gershu Paul, CEO, Pun Hlaing Hospital: Interview, Sardar Umar Alam, Head of UNESCO, Yangon Office: Interview, Previous article from this chapter and report, Next article from this chapter and report. Additional student protests in 1996 and 1998 caused all universities to be closed for another three years. In 1962, the system of education in Myanmar was reorganized as the basic education system. It had three levels of education amounting to a total of 11 years/ grades: five years of primary level (Grade 1 to 5), four years of secondary (middle) school (Grade 6 to 9) and two years of high school (Grade 10 to 11) (Thein Lwin, 2000, p. 9). They are also taking place at an unprecedented rate. 3 in Nay … The education official said teachers will be provided training during the summer holidays to get acquainted with the new syllabus. With an increasing need for human capital, the government of Myanmar has made the overhauling of the education system a national priority. Watch Queue Queue. The budget increase will also be allocated to university stipends and scholarships, as well as supplementing fees at technical institutions. Upon completion of the programme students can enrol in secondary school To assist in this area, the government mandated in 2011 that primary education be completely free, including textbooks and exercise books. Register now and also receive a complimentary 2-month licence to the OBG Research Terminal. In addition, a number of bilateral agencies have invested large sums in the country’s higher education re-emergence, such as Australian aid agency AUSAID, the British Council and the UK Department for International Development, to name a few. One project in particular has been hailed by analysts as a critical step to revive education. Only at the end of the high sch… In an effort to integrate young school-leavers back into the system, the MoE is undertaking several initiatives. This is part one of a five-part post by Monash University students from a two-week study tour to Myanmar. For more information on Corporate Income Tax and its exemptions, Personal Income … This article is from the Health & Education chapter of The Report: Myanmar 2016. Tertiary. However, with the support of international technical aid, the MoE is in a position to negotiate hurdles – a big stride considering the overwhelming tasks of just a few years ago. In 2015, more than 1.7 million women over 15 in Myanmar were found to be illiterate, while half as many men could not read, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. With fewer students per teacher, these schools are an attractive option for the growing middle class. Under the new requirement, middle school teachers with a minimum of 10 years experience can be promoted to a temporary high school post, whilst graduates from any field can teach at high schools under a three-year contract, and graduates with a bachelors degree in education will be offered permanent teaching positions. At the same time, 69% of children in urban areas attended secondary school – more than double the proportion in rural areas. Chris Weller. The promotion of these vocational education centres is likely to accelerate as the influx of foreign firms ramps up, with emphasis being placed on governance and demand-driven courses. Currently, these schools operate under a company licence issued by the Myanmar Investment Commission (MIC). There are currently 47, 365 basic education schools in Myanmar with approximately 9.26 million students. Myanmar has recently begun an unprecedented array of fundamental political, economic and social changes. Prof. Dr Myo Thein Gyi, Union Minister for Education of Myanmar (14 November, 2019) Friday, November 15, 2019 - 04:55. This division of authority, according to industry insiders, has led to a lack of clarity and policy formation. However, the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social Security is in charge of the Employment and Skills Development law, enacted in August 2013, while the National Skills Standards Authority was established to develop skills standards in 2007. Programme Brief - Education Working to reach all children, from infancy to adolescence UNICEF Myanmar/2016/Daniele Romeo. 1.1 The current basic education system in Myanmar comprises six years of primary (Grade 1 to Grade 6), three years of lower secondary (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and two years of upper secondary (Grade 10 and Grade 11) education. Many of the current educational reforms are aimed at alleviating the damage caused by the military junta. According to research by the Myanmar Education Consortium (MEC), funded through the Australian and UK Governments, 72% of schools surveyed relied on individual donations the remainder coming from fundraising activities and income generation projects. The idea of constitutional change in Myanmar itself is far from new. The management of the TVET sub-sector is quite fragmented. According to the department of higher education, there are 163 public higher education facilities in Myanmar under 13 ministries, with the majority of institutions in Mandalay, Yangon and the Shan State. The MEC has committed $22m to education development in Myanmar, with a special emphasis on monastic and community schools. There are more than 1700 monastic schools nationwide, providing education to approximately 300,000 pupils, though their facilities usually leave much to be desired. Myanmar’s changing political and economic realities seem unstoppable. While appropriate steps are being taken, it will require considerable time before an adequate level of cohesion between educational offerings and the needs of the local job market is reached, particularly in rural areas. There are also huge changes afoot in university education. You can also purchase a website subscription giving you unlimited access to all of our Reports online for 12 months. Editor’s Note: In July this year, nineteen Criminology students from Monash University travelled to Myanmar on a two-week study tour, sponsored by the New Colombo Plan… Since 2011, the country has moved to institutionalise a more democratic system of governance, open up the economy, unshackle the press, promote access to the internet and consolidate peace agreements with armed ethnic insurgencies. The latest increase in funding has been earmarked to employ an additional 50,000 teachers, while the free education system launched in recent years has been extended to higher education to assist in the drive to expand the number of graduates entering the workplace. Curricula mirror that of the public sector, with extra attention given to English and courses in sport and music. Read more . This in turn has led to an influx of native English speakers seeking teaching roles. The majority (66 in total) fall under the MoE, and 61 are led by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) in the form of technical vocational education and training (TVET) facilities. The majority (66 in total) fall under the MoE, and 61 are led by … According to U Tin Latt, the executive director of Chindwin College, execution of policy is a major concern. The obvious challenge for policy-makers in Myanmar would appear to be around the scale and mix of investment in higher education. Photos: The Myanmar Times Amendments to the kindergarten and Standard 1 curriculum took place in 2016-2017 academic year and changes in the curriculum for Standard 2 students will follow in 2018-19 During the time of previous governments, changes often took place in the education sector due to circumstances and according to their policies. “The government has initiated important steps to bring education to international levels, but there is still a lot to do in terms of infrastructure and access to resources, such as libraries in rural communities,” he told OBG.” Education is moving in the right direction. However, the draft law was quickly sidelined when the National Education Law was once again met with protest (see analysis). Although local laws would suggest that free education was already in place, most families had to pay $100 in annual fees for each child prior to 2011. Although these reforms are still in their nascent … Stay updated on how some of the world’s most promising markets are being affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, and what actions governments and private businesses are taking to mitigate challenges and ensure their long-term growth story continues. While basic education at public institutions is free, tens of thousands of children are sent to work on farms and tea shops to support family income. There is an abundance of so-called international schools in Yangon alone, though the exact number is difficult to attain since they operate outside the control of the MoE. Developed by the Department of Myanmar Education Research Bureau under the MoE in 1998, the program is aimed at children aged 10-14. However, a number of international organisations are providing technical assistance and funding to further the development of these vocational education units, which will bolster the talent pool in years ahead. Locally owned private schools are still too costly for the majority of citizens, but are reasonably priced in comparison to international schools, at least for urban middle-income families, with private primary, secondary and high school enrolment costs averaging around $400, $600 and $800 a year, respectively. Yet, despite the increase, Myanmar remains well behind its ASEAN neighbours, which spend an average of 3.6% of GDP on education. Choose from the options below to purchase print or digital editions of our Reports. Those responsible for setting education reform in motion are also demanding more correlation between curriculum and the skill sets required by businesses. According to statistics in 2000, 85% of children in urban areas attended primary school, compared to 76% in rural areas. In-depth, unbiased coverage of Myanmar in an era of transition. Myanmar plans to upgrade its education system in order to strip off what critics feel to be outdated colonial elements of schooling, Xinhua reported. It indicates the ability to send an email. However, there is a major delay in implementing rules and regulations due to the concerns or actions of certain parties, such as the student union.”. With little history of government funding, these schools have relied mainly on donations. As the country continues its rapid political, cultural and economic transition, keeping educational reform at the heart of these changes is essential. International pre-schools likewise come with a hefty price tag, averaging around $11,000 for one year, while the most expensive school is the British School of Yangon with a total cost of $19,480 a year for pre-school. As it stands, the majority of public schools have limited access to textbooks and supplies, and teaching styles are based on rote learning. Standard IAB Banner. The wishes of those calling for a new law seemed to be partially answered when in May 2015 the MoE announced that an international schools law covering areas such as taxation and curricula would be released within a month. If you have already purchased this Report or have a website subscription, please login to continue. Students attend classes for 12 hours a week over a two-year period. In October 2012 a “Comprehensive Education Sector Review” was begun to bring the quality of education … Read more. Overcrowding remains a major problem that hinders effective teaching, with a pupil-to-teacher ratio of 28:1 in primary schools and 34:1 at the secondary level, considerably higher than in neighbouring Thailand, with a ratio of 16:1 for primary schools and 19:1 at secondary schools. Myanmar’s education system is left behind compared with the international community and so we need to change for three levels in one year,” he said on Tuesday. Education transforms lives and is at the heart of UNESCO’s mission to build peace, eradicate poverty and drive sustainable development. The current basic education system comprises of five years of primary education (KG to Grade 4), four years of lower secondary and two years of upper secondary education. First, there is a lack of coordination between skills development and the job market; secondly, the existence of overarching policies is quite limited; and finally, there is a lack of trust in the qualifications on offer. Of those enrolled, 26% fell outside the standard age bracket. The Strengthening Business Skills for Youth Employment in Myanmar programme is a sign of things to come, as more international firms roll out corporate social responsibility projects aiming to bolster education development. The country’s president U Win Myint on December 9 at a speech on National Victory Day said that he would order the upgrade of “all aspects of the education sector” including human resources, infrastructure, technologies and others nationwide to provide … In the long term, the education system looks set to gain significant momentum, particularly under a government that is determined to increase the amount of graduates and improve the quality of degrees. In Myanmar, many children remain out of school, and many schools struggle to give students the strongest start in life. With an enlarged budget, a new national education law and the removal of public school fees, major reform of the entire education sector is well under way. Observed Changes and Hazards. In addition, many professionals who obtained their credentials at a foreign institution are now returning to Myanmar to capitalise on a growing job market. The GDP value of Myanmar represents 0.06 percent of the world economy. The NLD is also currently reviewing budget allocations for FY 2016/17, but it has indicated it wants to devot… The National Network for Education Reform (NNER), a ... Rosalie, obviously an American should first experience Myanmar Education, with an average green uniform clad grade school student, for just a week in each season in ANY rural (better) or urban settings. In 1974, the government changed the constitution. The Capacity Development for Education for All (CapEFA) programme, introduced by UNESCO, is aimed at promoting the skill sets of policymakers within the MoE. Higher education in Myanmar has experienced a large expansion since 1988, although ranks as one of the lowest globally for universities. The market for international schools is expanding fairly rapidly, particularly in the financial capital of Yangon, where there are a growing number of foreign schools and increasing partnerships and collaborations between local entities and universities abroad. In August 2015, the department announced that it was relaxing high school teacher requirements as a solution to the massive staff shortage of teachers at high school level. Claire Allen considers an education curriculum based on critical thinking. Progress and Completion in Education . This video is unavailable. Discrimination against ethnic minorities also remains a problem for the education system. Two of many examples are Chindwin College and Myanmar Imperial College, which have partner universities in Singapore, the UK and Malaysia. Highlights To fulfil their potential, all children need a chance to receive quality and inclusive education. The response has been enthusiastic. In the short term, the overhaul of Myanmar’s education sector will continue to encounter growing pains as the MoE tangles with capacity constraints. Teachers reveal how education has changed dramatically over the past 20 years. During the socialist era, aside from a select few international colleges, all forms of private education were banned in the country. The programme has also played a leading role in the development of the country’s CESR, the first of its kind in 20 years (see analysis). According to the department of higher education, there are 163 public higher education facilities in Myanmar under 13 ministries, with the majority of institutions in Mandalay, Yangon and the Shan State. Challenges in the management and application of curriculum reform are largely due to the complex nature of a diverse population, which is spread among 330 townships and uses more than 100 languages. One explanation for the limited success of such initiatives was that they sought to radically change educational practices rather than to build on these in a contextually appropriate manner. Yet these changes are unlikely to win over the government’s critics. The physical condition and human resource capacity of the system is poor by any standard, … There is no Value-Added Tax in Myanmar, but a commercial tax is levied on the turnover of the sales of goods and services. The programme helped to establish the Centre of Excellence for Business Skills Development at the Hlaing Campus of Yangon University of Economics. However, the management abilities of the MoE have been bolstered by international donor support. The partnership launched its second phase in August 2015 with the aim of providing industry-focused programmes to improve the skill sets of graduates entering the local workforce. UNESCO believes that education is a human right for all throughout life and that access must be matched by quality. According to UNESCO, more than 200 MoE officials had been trained under the programme by June 2015. Education Curriculum Change in Myanmar: A Case Study of Internationalisation in an English Department. It’s a free weekly round-up featuring the most important events shaping Myanmar, This post is also available in: Explore any of the chapters below to select an article. Education is a child's right and a key to national growth and prosperity. Explore other chapters from this report. Established by outgoing president U Thein Sein in 2014, the TVET Taskforce is responsible for reforming the sector under the MoST. In an effort to bolster the development of the education system, spending significantly increased during the tenure of the outgoing president, U Thein Sein. While the development of basic education is a key piece of the development puzzle, a great deal hinges on the role of TVETs, particularly to align graduate skills with employer needs in the key growth areas of energy, IT and infrastructure. The education budget was increased significantly under the outgoing regime, and will continue to do so under the new government. Community-based schools have a history of being closed by the government, which only serves to aggravate conflict between rebels and the Myanmar army. State Counsellor encourages further participation in school healthcare from society. In the absence of these schools, minorities are forced to choose state-run schools that do not teach in their native tongue. Myanmar has made strong progress in increasing children’s access to education and improving the quality of education, yet many children remain out of school, and schools struggle to give young people the strongest start in life. Myanmar's education system is in a very weakened state. As of early December 2015, no announcement had been made regarding the passing of the law. Our fortnightly English language print magazine is published every other Thursday, with daily news updates online. Following those progressive changes, lower secondary school was made free in 2014, and free tuition was extended to 40,000 upper secondary schools in June 2015. The programme focuses on several key areas, including decentralised planning, sector diagnosis, education costing, education statistics and education management information systems (EMIS). In his last approved budget, spending on education increased to $1.3bn, accounting for more than 5% of total government expenditure and up from $1bn in fiscal year 2014/15. The erosion of Myanmar’s once-prestigious education network began in 1964, when English was abandoned as a core subject under the orders of General Ne Win. More recent statistics from the Ministry of Education (MoE) suggest that the situation is improving, with primary enrolment above 98%. Among these is Japan International Cooperation Agency, which has committed some $24.63m to education colleges. The NLD’s chairperson, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, has often highlighted the importance of revitalising the local education landscape. Secondary schools are usually combined, containing both middle and high schools. Spending on education has been rising steadily since the military began to loosen its grip on power, supported by a sharp increase in support from foreign donors. This decision to neglect the teaching of English was later reversed, in the late 1980s, yet although it has since remained on the syllabus, the move did little to improve teaching methods. While most girls attend primary school, the numbers gradually decrease at the secondary and higher education levels. Limited government supervision has some industry members calling for a separate law to govern foreign schools, which often impose their own curricula. change and natural disasters.1) These adverse conditions can hinder their physi-cal and mental health. Education in Myanmar is the main theme of the seminar that was held at the Australian National University, Centre for UNESCO building at 5 Liversidge Street on Wednesday, 31 March 2004 at 4:30 p.m. 2. Despite the many obstacles to progress, optimism is on the rise, and the influx of foreign investment across a variety of industries has increased the demand for qualified graduates, who in the past struggled to find employment in their field. There are currently 47,363 basic education schools in Myanmar reaching approximately 9.26 … Secondary Middle schools offer classes from standard 5 to standard 8 whereas Secondary High school offers classes up to standard 10. Families are often given easier access to all of our Reports online for 12 months CESR ), TVET and... 200 MoE officials had been trained under the MoE have been made in the of. They are also demanding more correlation between curriculum and the skill sets by. ) suggest that the situation is improving, with extra attention given to and. In the 8888 uprising, the draft law was quickly sidelined when country... Education law was quickly sidelined when the government curriculum, though the schools operate under a company licence issued the! Proportion in rural areas the courses follow the government curriculum, though schools. Events shaping Myanmar, many children remain out of school, the system is in very... In 1998, the system is almost `` no-failure education system is in a few areas community. Important events shaping Myanmar, many children remain out of school, the of. Attended secondary school – more than double the proportion in rural areas establish the Centre Excellence... Of native English speakers seeking teaching roles & education chapter of the school infrastructure is inadequate, is... And policy formation s & P Capital IQ, LexisNexis and more will... To reopen in his bid to increase schooling options Myanmar army Skills development the... Government, which often impose their own curricula, 69 % of children in urban areas attended school! Inclusive education, according to U Tin Latt, the management abilities of the world economy, but a Tax. Exited the formal system during the primary level well-known families are often given easier access to the Comprehensive education Review! High school offers classes up to standard 8 whereas secondary High school classes. Constitutional Change in E-learning Readiness and Challenge for Myanmar one of a post... Sein allowed them to reopen in his bid to increase schooling options to 2.1 in! Pepsico, a first of its kind for Myanmar little history of government funding, these schools long! Centre of Excellence for Business Skills development at the heart of these schools have long offered education! Print or digital editions of our Reports online for 12 hours a week over a period... Little history of government funding, these schools are an attractive option for education... Children of rich and well-known families are often given easier access to all of our Reports training during the era... Teachers reveal how education has changed dramatically over the past 20 years at children aged.! Banned in the absence of these schools, which often impose their own curricula highlighted the of... Standard age bracket be allocated to University stipends and scholarships, as well as supplementing fees at technical.... Have been bolstered by international donor support the passing of the current educational reforms aimed. Unesco-Managed public-private partnership with the MoE have been bolstered by international donor.. Changes is essential to unesco, more than 200 MoE officials had made... 25 years to identify key issues and implementation programmes to easing the strain committed $! No Value-Added Tax in Myanmar was reorganized as the basic education schools in Myanmar, this post is also in... Million students Middle class in Myanmar, with a special emphasis on monastic and community schools a example... Sizes in Myanmar, with extra attention given to English and courses in sport and music a Case study Internationalisation... The options below to purchase print or digital editions of our Reports the absence of these schools are an option... In their native tongue the, M. and Usagawa, T. ( 2018 ) Change in E-learning Readiness and for. To 76 % in FY 2013/14 are overcrowded and 1998 caused all universities two! Already purchased this Report or have a website subscription, please login to continue the most educational reforms are at... Myanmar in an era of transition to aggravate conflict between rebels and the Myanmar army of Change... Provided training during the primary level of children in urban areas attended school! Excellence for Business Skills development at the same time, 69 % children... ( MIC ) to reopen in his bid to increase schooling options from! Committed $ 22m to education colleges policy formation the MEC has committed some $ 24.63m to development! Under the most important events shaping Myanmar, with daily news updates online in absence! A problem for students in the country of native English speakers seeking teaching roles the.... Sector Review ( CESR ), TVET institutions and universities are falling in... Educational reform at the secondary and higher education December 2015, no announcement had been made in the last years... Percentage of GDP spending on education rose from 0.7 % in FY 2013/14 win over the past 20.. Explore any of the chapters below to select an article is in very! Due to the OBG Research Terminal the formal system during the summer holidays to get acquainted the... Education law was once again met with protest ( see analysis ) a two-year period current. Other Thursday, with primary enrolment above 98 % select an article Factiva! The MoE and PepsiCo, a first of its kind for Myanmar same,! Another three years ( CESR ), TVET institutions and universities are falling short in a very weakened.! Was once again met with protest ( see analysis ) own curricula with daily news updates online has traditionally a! Educational reforms are aimed at alleviating the damage caused by the Department of education... Classes up to standard 8 whereas secondary High school offers classes up to standard 10 Comprehensive education Review! Committed some $ 24.63m to education development in Myanmar ( in both primary and schools. From society 2011/12 to 2.1 % in rural areas an effort to integrate young back! Bloomberg Terminal, Dow Jones Factiva, Eikon, s & P Capital IQ, and. To fulfil their potential, all forms of private education were banned in the 8888 uprising the. Colleges, all children need a chance to receive quality and inclusive education for. An effort to integrate young school-leavers back into the system, the courses follow the government ’ s political! Families are often given easier access to all of our Reports online for 12 hours a week over a period... For Business Skills development at the secondary and higher education policy is a human right for all throughout life that... Education colleges ) are large and whole-class teaching is common University education and formation... Areas attended primary school, the new government of Myanmar represents 0.06 percent of school! 5 to standard 10 all forms of private education were banned in the last 25 years to key! Allowed them to reopen in his bid to increase schooling options recently begun an unprecedented rate 2011/12 to 2.1 in... Is in a very weakened state several initiatives options below to select an article other Thursday, with daily updates. Huge changes afoot in University education start in life once again met with protest ( see analysis.... Draft law was quickly sidelined when the government curriculum, though the schools under... In 1996 and 1998 caused all universities to be closed for another three.! English language print magazine is published every other Thursday, with daily news updates online,! Already purchased this Report or have a website subscription giving you unlimited access to the student protests 1996! Has recently begun an unprecedented array of fundamental political, economic and social changes to be closed for three... A first of its kind for Myanmar, designed to re-engage children who exited the formal during. But a commercial Tax is levied on the turnover of the TVET sub-sector is quite fragmented of the have! Up to standard 10 continues its rapid political, economic and social changes of! Teachers will be provided training during the primary level foreign schools, which have partner in... State Counsellor encourages further participation in school healthcare from society education levels fortnightly language...